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The punishment of the cross was regularly inflicted for such grave crimes as highway robbery and piracy (Petron., lxxii; Flor., III, xix), for public accusation of his master by a slave (, see Capitolin., Pertinax, ix; Herodian, V, ii; Paul., "Sent.", V, xxi, 4), for sedition and tumult (Paul., Fr. "De Pnis", XLVIII, 19, and "Sent.", V, 221; Dion., V, 52; Josephus, "Antiq.", XIII, xxii, and "Bell. dei vind.", ix, "Artemid.", II, xli), exposed to the jibes and insults of the people (Joseph., "Antiq.", XIX, iii; Plaut., "Most.", I, 1, 52; Dion., VII, 69).

The cross is now met with, in various forms, on many objects: fibulas, cinctures, earthenware fragments, and on the bottom of drinking vessels.

De Mortillet is of opinion that such use of the sign was not merely ornamental, but rather a symbol of consecration, especially in the case of objects pertaining to burial.

Soon the sufferer, entirely naked, was bound to it with cords (Plin., "Hist.

Nat.", XXVIII, iv; Auson., "Id.", VI, 60; Lucan, VI, 543, 547), indicated in Latin by the expressions .

Hüschke, however (Die Multa), does not admit that it was originally a servile punishment.

It was inflicted also, as Cicero tells us (XIII Phil., xii; Verr., V, xxvii), on provincials convicted of brigandage.

In fact, some have sought to attach to the widespread use of this sign, a real ethnographic importance. 178-179); finally among the ancient Germans, on a rock-carving in Sweden, on a few Celtic stones in Scotland, and on a Celtic stone discovered in the County of Norfolk, England, and now in the British Museum.

It is true that in the sign of the cross the decorative and geometrical concept, obtained by a juxtaposition of lines pleasing to the sight, is remarkably prominent; nevertheless, the cross was originally not a mere means or object of ornament, and from the earliest times had certainly another — i.e. The primitive form of the cross seems to have been that of the so-called "gamma" cross (. The swastika, appears in an epitaph on a pagan tombstone of Tebessa in Roman Africa (Annuaire de la Société de Constantine, 1858-59, 205, 87), on a mosaic of the (Ennio Quirino Visconti, Opere varie, ed.

It was particularly the punishment for slaves found guilty of any serious crime.

Hence in two places (Pro Cluent., 66; I Philipp., ii), Cicero calls it simply "servile supplicium" the punishment of slaves — more explicitly (In Verr., 66), "servitutis extremum summumque supplicium" — the final and most terrible punishment of slaves.

The swastika sign is seen on Hittite monuments, e.g. In the Island of Cyprus it is found on earthenware vessels. 2, II, 178-179), and in the treasury of Orchomenus. From the earliest times also it appears among the hieroglyphic signs symbolic of life or of the living, and was transliterated into Greek as ).